Information about Hungarian Radio


Hungary compared to its population has already given a lot of Nobel prize scientists to the world. Unfortunately we did not have any great people in connection with the radio like other nations, Popov, Marconi, Tesla, Lee de Forest and the others. But we have to mention Tivadar Puskás by all means, who put the first telephone exchange in the world into operation in Paris in April 1879, then in 1892 the "Telefonhírmondó" (a wired news and announcer apparatus) in Pest. There was another very important invention in 1892, it was Antal Pollák and József Virág's quick telegraphic apparatus, which was able to work at 100,000 word/hour data-transfer speed and it counted a great achievement compared to the level of that age. In connection with television many Hungarian scientists played an important role, but let's drop the matter, it's another story.

Without being exhaustive I would like bring to mind some dates of events happened in Hungary in order to make it possible to every inquirer to be able to form a notion of technological history in Hungary:

1903. the first experiments with Slaby-system spark transmitter between Weiss Manfred and the Egyesült Izzólámpagyár in Csepel
1904-1906. experiments between the coast in Fiume and the moving station of "Előre" ("Forward") ship on the Adriatic
1914. a telegraphic station was put into operation in Csepel
1923. radiotelephone experiments with the 5kW telegraph transmitter
1923-24. experiments with the 250W Huth transmitter
1925. the 2kW Telefunken transmitter was installed (with 500W broadcasting operation)
1927. the 3kW Telefunken transmitter was installed (with 750W broadcasting operation)
1928. the Telefunken transmitter with 20kW broadcasting capacity was installed and on the 1st April the midday peal of bells was broadcast through the radio
1932-33. broadcasting relay stations were installed in Magyaróvár, Miskolc, Nyíregyháza and in Pécs
1933. installing the 120kW Lakihegy transmitter, a radio antenna was made, which was the highest in the world of that time, the height is: 314 m.
1957. the first FM broadcast was the newest event

It's very instructive to look over the changes in the number of the radio subscribers, see as following:

- in December 1925 17.072 subscribers
- in December 1926 56.383 subscribers
- in 1928. 162.000 subscribers, among these 105,000 pieces with detector
- in 1931. 307.000 subscribers, among them 183,000 pieces with detector
- in 1935. 352.902 subscribers
- in 1940. 499.368 subscribers, among them 66,638 pieces with detector
- in 1961. 2.002.500 subscribers, and 240,000 wired subscribers
- in 1969. 2.531.000 subscribers

To give you a foretaste here are some data about the development and strength of the Hungarian radio industry.
In 1935 the radio set export got more than 50% from the electrical industry export, which was 31.5 million pengo
In 1939 beside the radio set and component import - 984 thousand pengo - the export was 3,561,000 pengo.
The success of the home electron tube manufacturing was more amazing, because in that year beside the imported 6,104 receiver and 105 transmitter tubes, 2,031,466 receiver and 2,126 transmitter were exported.
World War II strongly retarded the production but from the middle of the 1950s it became an important export factor again.

  Manufactured Sets
- 1956. 352.291 106.144
- 1957. 454.183 184.464
- 1958. 453.290 221.824
- 1959. 263.534 112.880

Of course, beside the level of the industry, the media and publishing of books that increase the knowledge of radio friends and inquirers was as high as all over in Europe.

The most significant radio newspapers were the following:

Magyar Rádió Újság (Hungarian Radio Newspaper) May1924 -1928.
Rádió Amatőr (Radio Amateur) 1926- October 1930
Rádió és Fotó Amatőr (Radio and Photo Amateur) November 1930. - 1933.
Rádió Technika (Radio Technology) March 1936. - August1948. augusztus
(stopped between June 1944 to August 1947)
Rádióvilág (Radio World) Jahuar 1946. - August 1948.
Rádió és Filmtechnika (Radio and Film Technology) September 1948. - October 1951.

Of course, Hungarians read foreign papers too and a good example for this is that among the 60 readers' letter in ÖRA, the Austrian amateur radio paper (no. 12/1927), 5 letters were Hungarian, and the question (about anode deputies) of a reader from Kaposvár was also published.

Here I have to mention Károly Kemény , mechanical engineer's article (in the Rádió és Fotó Amatör no. December/1930, page 1. 2. 3. ) in which he drafted the idea of an amplifier part with illustrations, and was carried out by American scientists as a transistor in 1948.

Finally I would like to offer some books and publications to those are interested:

Jenő Mende: A drótnélküli telegráfia (1921)
János Molnár: Gyakorlati Rádiókönyv (1926)
János Molnár: Anódpotlók építése és kezelése (1929)
A 10 éves Magyar Rádió (1935)
István Horváth: Rádió Compass (1938 - 1943)
Tungsram: Rádió Tanácsadó (1944)
15 év Standard rádió (1944)
Rádió évkönyv (Tivadar Kiss as an editor 1947 - 1949)
Géza Kádár: Rádiókészülékek kapcsolásai (1956) and any other books from him.